Sunday, 16 February 2020
Photography was invented in the 1840's. Within twenty years of its invention, a vigorous debate began about the essence of photography. It was widely accepted that photography was a useful way to mechanically record images with high fidelity, but the bigger question was whether it was Art or not? This debate continues.
One person who worked tirelessly to establish photography as an art-form was the American photographer Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946). Stieglitz was born in Hoboken, New Jersey of German-Jewish extraction. He was educated at a private school in New York, the Realgymnasium in Karlsruhe and the Technische Hochschule in Berlin. Whilst in Berlin, he took up photography, studying both the technical and aesthetic aspects of this new medium. From 1884, Stieglitz spent six years in Germany, reading widely on photography, taking pictures and writing articles that developed his own ideas on photography as art. In 1890 he returned to New York and began his career as a photographic artist, with strong financial support from his family.
By 1902 Stieglitz was one of the most influential photographers in the US. In that year he was asked by the National Arts Club to put on an exhibition of contemporary photographs. The exhibition was called the Photo-Secession, it was an immediate popular and critical success. In 1902 the Photo-Secession also became a movement led by Stieglitz, that aimed to;
... hold together those Americans devoted to pictorial photography in their endeavor to compel its recognition, not as a handmaiden of art, but as a distinctive medium of individual expression.Early in 1903, Stieglitz began editing and publishing Camera-Work, a quarterly photographic journal based on the aims of the Photo-Secession. Each number of the journal had exquisite high quality photogravure images that were hand printed and then individually tipped into the pages of the journal. Between 1903 and 1917 fifty editions of Camera Work were produced, almost every single copy of which was hand finished, packed and dispatched by Stieglitz himself. The close circle of photographers that Stieglitz habitually worked with in the Photo-Secession group, and heavily represented in the pages of Camera-Work, were amongst the best artist-photographers of his, or any subsequent, generation. This volume was published in 1904, under the auspices of the Camera Club of Pittsburgh. It has seven plates, which were taken from various numbers of Camera Works.
This image, Gables, was included in the Photo-Secession volume. It was taken by Alvin Langdon Coburn (1882-1966), a brilliant American photographer who from the age of 16 was producing photography of the highest quality. Coburn was a close associate of Stieglitz and other leading American and European photographers. Between 1900 and 1910 Coburn spent long periods travelling, photographing cityscapes in New York, London and Venice and taking portraits of famous Men of Mark, including Henri Matisse, Ezra Pound, Thomas Hardy, Henry James, Auguste Rodin, Mark Twain, Theodore Roosevelt and W.B. Yeats.
Coburn was a photographic innovator. He made great use of high vantage points to flatten perspective and obtain unusual and distinctive geometric patterns. During 1916 Coburn developed a kaleidoscope-like device that Ezra Pound christened a Vortescope. The photographs taken with this device, known as Vortographs, are strange, fractured almost cubist images that show multiple perspectives and facets. They are perhaps the very first conciously made purely abstract photographs.
From the early 1920's Coburn became increasingly interested in religion and mysticism, by 1930 he had effectively stopped taking photographs.
Stieglitz, A. & Margolis, M.F. (1978). Camera Work: A Pictorial Guide. Dover, New York.
White, C.H., Porterfield, W.H. et al. (1920). Pictorial Photography in America. Tennant & Ward, New York.
The volume is HERE.
Posted by Matt at 08:37
An illustration of the Sung dynasty Chinese allegory of the The Vinegar Tasters by Tachibana Morikuni (1679-1748). The image depicts the sages who created the Three Teachings of China; the Buddha, Confucius and Lao-Tze, standing before a vat of vinegar. Each sage dips in their finger and tastes the liquid. Confucius finds it sour. The Buddha finds it bitter. Lao-Tze finds it sweet.
This essay was written in English by the Japanese writer and scholar Okakuro Kakuzō (1863-1913). It was originally published in 1906 and has remained in print since. The book not only celebrates tea, but also its role in the culture and aesthetics of Japanese life. Some people believe that tea is a matter of life and death. The author of this volume thought it was much, much more important than that. The sub-title tells you something of this: A Japanese Harmony of Art, Culture and the Simple Life.
The book begins with a section called The Cup of Humanity;
Tea began as a medicine and grew into a beverage. In China, in the eighth century, it entered the realm of poetry as one of the polite amusements. The fifteenth century saw Japan enoble it into a religion of aestheticism - Teaism. Teaism is a cult founded on the adoration of the beautiful among the sordid facts of everyday existence. It inculcates purity and harmony, the mystery of mutual charity, the romanticism of the social order. It is essentially a worship of the Imperfect, as it is a tender attempt to accomplish something possible in this impossible thing we know as life.Okakuro Kakuzō was the son of a rich samurai, Okakura Kan'emon, who had relinquished his rank to become a silk merchant. Kakuzō was educated from an early age in English and when he entered Tokyo Imperial University he studied with the Harvard educated American professor Ernest Fenollosa (1853-1908). Later in life he travelled very widely in China, Europe, India and the US and established his own academy, the Nihon Bijutsuin (Japan Fine Arts Academy) in 1898 with a group of artists and followers. He later became the first curator of the Department of Chinese and Japanese art at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.
Tea was first introduced to Japan in the 9th century and by the the 13th century Japanese grown teas were an important high status commodity. Many of the rituals and concepts involved in the fully developed Japanese Tea ceremony can be traced back to the Buddhist Tea master Sen no Rikyū (1522-1591). Sen sought to bring together the simplest of everyday activities with spiritual and philosophical tenets. One of his famous sayings is; The Way of Tea is naught but this: you boil water, then you make the tea and drink it.
Sen no Rikyū brought into the Way of Tea an aesthetic which embraces the idea of imperfection, incompleteness and transience. This approach can be seen in the tiny tea-bowls used in the tea ceremony, which are rustic, imperfect and simply finished. The same aesthetic can be seen in other Japanese arts: Ikebana flower arranging; Zen gardens; Bonsai plants and Haiku poetry.
In 1591, for reasons that are unclear, Sen no Rikyū was ordered to commit ritual suicide by his master Taiko-Hideyoshi. In this book, Okakuro Kakuzō describes the tea ceremony that Sen holds for his disciples immediately before his death. After Sen served tea to each of his guests, he then gave each of them a piece of the tea ceremony equipment as a souvenir, keeping only the tea bowl, which he broke so it would never be used again. Before his death he spoke a verse to the dagger;
Welcome to thee,
O sword of eternity!
And through Daruma alike
Thou hast cleft thy way.
The life of Sen no Rikyū is celebrated annually by many schools of the Japanese way of tea.
Arrowsmith, R.R. (2011). The Transcultural Roots of Modernism: Imagist Poetry, Japanese Visual Culture, and the Western Museum System. Modernism/modernity. Vol 18. pp. 27-42.
Hoff, B. (1983). The Tao of Pooh. Penguin, London.
Tanizaki, J. (2013). In Praise Of Shadows. Vintage Classics, London.
The volume is HERE.
Posted by Matt at 08:19
A really good, short, reflection on boredom (HERE) - ‘It is by studying little things that we attain the great art of having as little misery and as much happiness as possible.’
Posted by Matt at 07:49
Saturday, 15 February 2020
The Central School of Arts and Crafts was founded in London in 1896 (it is now known as Central St. Martins). One of the founding directors was the English architect and design teacher, William Lethaby (1857-1931). Based on his family background, early apprenticeship, education and inspiration from William Morris, Lethaby developed a deep appreciation for traditional art and craft skills.
In a preface to Edward Johnston's book on handwriting and calligraphy, Lethaby wrote;
Of all the Arts, writing, perhaps, shows most clearly the formative force of the tools used ... No one has ever invented a form of script, and herein lies the wonderful interest of the subject; the forms used have always formed themselves by a continuous process of development ... we do need a basis of training in a demonstrably useful art, and I doubt if any is so generally fitted for the purpose of educating the hand, the eye and the mind as this one of writing.Modern western European handwriting came to fruition in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries. The humanist scholars of the time took the beautiful Carolingian scripts that they thought were from ancient Rome (though in fact were only 2 or 3 hundred years old) and created the lower case roman and italic handwriting that are still recognisable today.
In the mid 1520's a number of highly skilled scribes created illustrated handwriting manuals, showcasing their roman and chancery italic scripts and providing instructional text: Sigismondo Fanti (c. 1490-1530's); Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi (1475-1527); Giovanni Antonio Tagliente (1465/70 - aft. 1527); Giovan Battista Palatino (1515 - 1575). This volume brings together material from several of these master scribes and is a celebration of the art and craft of Italian humanist handwriting and calligraphy from that period.
The creator, Ugo da Carpi (1480-1520 or 1532), was an Italian painter and printmaker who pioneered the use of Chiaroscuro techniques in printmaking. It is hard to establish for the examples shown in this volume the exact author or engraver and several copyright disputes developed around key pages of material. To print this volume, da Carpi had to develop the ability to create wood engravings that captured the form of flowing, cursive handwriting. This book was originally printed in 1525 and it went through at least eight editions before 1535.
The image shows a display of the instruments and tools required for handwriting. This image was originally included in Lo presente libro insegna la vera arte de lo excellente scrivere de diverse varie sorti de litere a book by Tagliente, published in 1524. There are 19 different tools shown in the illustration;
The only material that is now little known is Pounce, or Ponce. A fine powder of cuttlefish bone that was used to prepare rough writing surfaces and also to dry ink. Another leading Italian calligrapher of the same period, Giovan Battista Palatino (1515-1575), published a very similar illustration of the tools used by calligraphers in 1540 and noted that; `... the mirror is used to save the sight and to assist it in continuous steady writing. It is much better of glass than of steel'.
One edition of the Thesauro was reprinted in a facsimile in 1968, with a short introduction by Esther Potter. It is broadly the same as this version, though a detailed examination shows differences in page order and page layout and provide evidence of the re-work that went on between editions of the book.
da Carpi, U. (1968). Thesauro de Scrittori, ed. Esther Potter. Nattali & Maurice, London.
Finlay, M. (1990). Western Writing Implements in the Age of the Quill Pen. Plains. Carlisle.
Johnston, E. (1906). Writing & Illuminating & Lettering. John Hogg, London.
Ilardi, V. (2007). Renaissance Vision. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
The Volume is HERE
Posted by Matt at 22:21
Saturday, 8 February 2020
HERE is a concise and very clearly written explanation of the many issues that so-called personalised medicine has. It begins:
Personalized medicine aims to match individuals with the therapy that is best suited to them and their condition. Advocates proclaim the potential of this approach to improve treatment outcomes by pointing to statistics about how most drugs — for conditions ranging from arthritis to heartburn — do not work for most people. That might or might not be true, but the statistics are being misinterpreted. There is no reason to think that a drug that shows itself to be marginally effective in a general population is simply in want of an appropriate subpopulation in which it will perform spectacularly.
Posted by Matt at 08:50
Monday, 3 February 2020
Sunday, 2 February 2020
Andy Gill, the guitarist of the Leeds post-punk band the Gang of Four has just died. I heard this EP on John Peel in 1978 when it was first released. I had never heard a guitar sound as blistering as Gill was able to create on this EP and their first album - Entertainment! A very good appreciation by Alexis Petridis in the Guardian HERE.
Posted by Matt at 18:34
Friday, 31 January 2020
Following the short lived Republic of California, which had been established in 1846, California was admitted to the United States as a free state in 1850. Since 1854 the state capital of California has been Sacramento, but the historic seat of government between 1777 and 1845, covering periods of both Spanish and Mexican rule, was Monterey on the Pacific coast.
In Cannery Row, John Steinbeck's paean to the inhabitants of the sardine canning region of Monterey, he claims that; Monterey is a city with a long and brilliant literary tradition. It remembers with pleasure and some glory that Robert Louis Stevenson lived there.
Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 - 1894) was a Scottish writer of novels, essays, letters, travel memoirs and poetry. He was born into an Edinburgh family that was famous for lighthouse engineering. He was an only child who was frequently ill, but his literary imagination was well developed and his father paid for his first publication to be printed when he was 16. Much of Stevenson's work remains in print and his works have been widely translated. He is best known for his novels Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.
In August 1879 Stevenson began a romantic and adventurous journey to the USA to be united with his married lover Fanny Van de Grift Osbourne. He sailed from Scotland to New York in second-class accommodation aboard the steamship Devonia. The journey, his impressions of his fellow passengers and arrival at New York are recounted in the Amateur Emigrant (1895). From New York, Stevenson then travelled overland by train to California, which is recounted in Across the Plains (1892). The combined effects of the sea and train journeys almost killed him. When he arrived in Monterey he was close to death and only recovered due to attentive care from a local doctor J.P.E. Heintz and his family. After he had recovered, Stevenson then headed for San Francisco where he was eventually nursed back to reasonable health by his lover Fanny.
After marrying in May 1880, Stevenson, Fanny and her son Lloyd, headed north into the Napa Valley area of California. They had an unconventional summer honeymoon in a three-storey bunkhouse at an abandoned mining camp on Mount Saint Helena. His book The Silverado Squatters (1883) is based on this experience.
Monterey made a big impact on Stevenson. In his essay on Monterey, The Old Pacific Capital, he says; The one common note of all this country is the haunting presence of the ocean. The great faint sound of breakers follows you high up into the inland canons.
In October 1879 Stevenson wrote to his friend William Ernest Henley (who Stevenson later used as a model for Long John Silver), he described Monterey as follows;
This is a lovely place which I am growing to love. The Pacific licks all other oceans out of hand; there is no place but the Pacific Coast to hear eternal roaring surf. When I get to the top of the woods behind Monterey, I can hear the seas breaking all round over ten or twelve miles of coast from near Carmel on my left, out to Point Pinos in front, and away to the right along the sands of Monterey to Castroville and the mouth of the Salinas.
Later in life, after returning to England, Stevenson wrote Treasure Island. From Chapter XIII is this description of the shore of the heavily wooded slopes of the island as seen from the boat Hispaniola;
Perhaps it was this - perhaps it was the look of the island, with its grey, melancholy woods, and wild stone spires, and the surf that we could both see and hear foaming and thundering on the steep beach - at least, although the sun shone bright and hot, and the shore birds were fishing and crying all around us, and you would have thought any one would have been glad to get to land after so long at sea, my heart sank, as the saying is, into my boots; and from that first look onward, I hated the very thought of Treasure Island.
In 1880 Robert Louis Stevenson returned with his family to Britain. After an itinerant period in Europe and the US, he moved to live in the South Pacific in 1888. After he had moved to Samoa in 1890, he took the name Tusitala, Samoan for teller of tales. He died suddenly at his home in Samoa on 3rd December 1894 at the age of 44.
Image is the frontispiece, drawn by S.W. van Schaick: Far away were hilltops like little islands.
The Book is HERE.
Mehew, E. (Ed.) (2001). Selected letters of Robert Louis Stevenson. Nota Bene, Yale.Steinbeck, J. (1945). Cannery Row. Viking, New York.
Posted by Matt at 20:08
The American philosopher Abraham Kaplan (1918-1993) describes scientific observation as follows;
An observation in science is first of all something done, an act performed by the scientist; only thereby is it something seen, a product of the process in which the scientist is engaged … Scientific observation is deliberate search, carried out with care and forethought, as contrasted with the casual and largely passive perceptions of everyday life.
This type of deliberate and careful observation became a distinctive part of the natural sciences during the early modern era of western science (roughly 1490 -1730).
Christoph Scheiner (1573 - 1650) was a Jesuit physician, astronomer and mathematician who was a contemporary of Galileo. He was a first rate scientific observer. Early in his career, Scheiner invented the Pantograph, built his own telescope and drew a map of the moon's surface. He is best known for the brilliant observations of sunspots he made in March 1611.
Scheiner's major work is Rosa Ursina (1630), in which he describes and plots dozens of sunspot observations and criticises some of Galileo's calculations. In common with Galileo, Christoph Scheiner vigorously argued for the primacy of observation in natural science. In Rosa Ursina, he asserts that: Against a single, true, observed fact a thousand hair-splitting arguments are without any value at all.
In 1619 Scheiner published Oculus hoc est: Fundamentum opticum. This is a thorough investigation of the optical properties of the human eye, including its anatomy, refraction of light by the eye and the role of the retina in vision. Throughout the book, Scheiner describes his observations, experiments and experiences, not a set of theoretical conjectures. Many of Scheiner's investigations include elegant experiments with pinholes, that show how light, optical phenomena and the eye work.
The simplest of all image forming devices is a small, clean, pinhole punched through an opaque sheet of material. Even without a lens of any sort, a pinhole can produce a rudimentary image of a well-lit scene. Although these images are inverted, faint and somewhat blurred, they are recognisably images. The earliest record of a pinhole image is the Mo Ching, a text by the Chinese scholar Mo Ti (also known as Mo Tzu) from about 400 BCE. Since Mo Ti, a small image forming hole has been variously known as a stenopeic disk, pinhole camera, camera ottica or camera obscura. This knowledge was developed and used by the early medieval Chinese statesman and philosopher Shen Kua (c.1031 - 1095) who described the inverted and reversed image which forms on a wall opposite a small hole in a dark room.
This illustration from Oculus hoc est summarises Scheiner's experimental investigation of what happens to the light rays that have been reflected from an object as they pass through a pinhole. The inferential step made by Scheiner using this experimental apparatus is clear; the observed left-right image inversion seen through a pinhole is not found on the far side of the pinhole, but only on this side, and thus the conclusion is that it has been caused by the pinhole itself. This simple experiment provides evidence of how the pinhole works as an optical element and illustrates that light travels in straight lines: I-H-L and K-H-M.
Two of the practical uses that Scheiner found for pinholes; the Pinhole occluder and the Scheiner disk, are still used by ophthalmologists and optometrists as diagnostic tests.
Book available HERE.
Daston, L. & Lunbeck, E. (eds.) (2011). Histories of Scientific Observation. University of Chicago Press.
Daxecker, F. (1994). Further studies by Christoph Scheiner concerning the optics of the eye. Documenta Ophthalmologica. 86 pp. 153-161.
Kaplan, A. (1964). The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Science. Chandler Publishing Company, San Fransisco.
Needham, J. (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology. CUP, Cambridge.
Scheiner, C. (1626 - 1630). Rosa Ursina, sive sol ex admirando facularum & macularam suaram phoenomeno varius. Bracciano.
Posted by Matt at 19:50